Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is the lower part of the body’s digestive system. The colon absorbs water and nutrients from the food and stores waste matter (stool). Stool moves from the colon into the rectum before it leaves the body. Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp, which may form on the inner wall of the colon or rectum. Some polyps become cancer over time. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer. During digestion, food moves through the stomach and small intestine into the colon. Most colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Some of the commonly seen symptoms of colorectal cancer are blood in the weight loss, fatigue, stool, and irregular bowel movements. Colorectal cancer is a result of uncontrolled cell growth that occurs in the appendix, colon, and the rectum region.
According to American Cancer Society, in United States when men and women are considered individually colorectal cancer is the third prominent cause of cancer-related mortality, and the second prominent cause when both sexes are combined. With the use of fecal occult blood tests and colonoscopies, which check for blood in the stool the deaths from colorectal cancer have decreased. Ageing, fatty diet, excessive consumption of red meat or alcohol, male gender, obesity, smoking are the most commonly observed causes for colorectal cancer. Most colorectal cancers originate as a polyp, a growth in the tissue that lines the internal surface of the rectum or colon and it is common in people older than 50 years of age, and most are not cancer.
Increasing adoption of western diet which are high in fat and low in fiber is expected to boost the growth of colorectal cancer market over the forecast period. Based on diagnosis, colorectal cancer are classified as fecal occult blood tests, stool DNA test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, double-contrast barium enema, others.
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Based on treatment option, colorectal cancer are classified as surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Surgery remains the most effective treatment for colorectal cancer. Radiation therapy reduces the chance of cancer spread or recurrence and is effective as additional or adjuvant therapy either before or after surgery. The segment is expected to grow rapidly over the forecast period due to increasing technological advancement and increasing awareness.
Based on colorectal cancer stage, colorectal cancer has been segmented into stage 0, stage I, stage II, stage III, and stage IV (metastatic). According to National Cancer Institute, in 2016, an estimated 134,490 people in the United States will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 49,190 people will die from it. In general, stages 0, I, II, and III are often curable with surgery. Patients with stage II and III rectal cancer receives radiation therapy with chemotherapy either before or after surgery. Patients with stage III colorectal cancer, and some with stage II, receive chemotherapy after surgery to increase the chance of eliminating the disease. Stage IV is not often curable, but it effects can be reduced, and the growth of the cancer and the symptoms of the disease can be managed.
On the basis of regional presence, global colorectal cancer market is segmented into five key regions viz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to lead the global colorectal cancer market for due to aging population. Due to increase in screening of colorectal cancer and changes in some risk factors such as a decline in smoking and consumption of alcohol is decreasing the rate of new colorectal cancer cases and deaths among adults aged 50 years and above.
Some of the major players in global colorectal cancer market are Hoffmann La Roche, Debiopharm Group, Merck KGaA, Vaccinogen BD, AEterna Zentaris, and Keryx Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., etc.
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